Shut up or shout loudly: Predation threat and sound production in fishes

Autor(en)
Friedrich Ladich
Abstrakt

Predation is a major ecological constraint shaping behaviour and communication in animals. Several fish species are known to modify their foraging, agonistic and reproductive behaviour in the presence of predators. However, close to nothing is known about how predators affect sound production in fishes. This paper reviews how vocal fish increase their chance of survival by modifying intraspecific acoustic communication and by producing sounds directed towards predators. Field studies showed that toadfish, drums and squirrelfish reduced the number and loudness of calls when dolphin sounds were played back. These studies lack behavioural observations, leaving the question open how individual fish respond to predation threat. Croaking gouramis (Trichopsis vittata, Osphronemidae) reduced acoustic and visual signalling during dyadic contests and refrained from escalated behaviour when detecting a predator in an adjacent tank. This indicates that gouramis increase their vigilance by reducing agonistic behaviour. Vocal fish have been observed to emit sounds when predators approach or when being caught. However, none of the predators (or even conspecifics nearby) responded to these calls. Therefore, the term “predator-related” sound has been introduced in this paper to avoid implying unproven functions (alarm, startling, warning, distress and disturbance). Interestingly, the readiness of numerous taxa (e.g. catfishes) to vocalize when hand-held or netted was frequently exploited to investigate sound production in fish in relation to weight, sex, sonic organs, temperature or phylogeny. Increasing levels of noise in aquatic habitats call for more research on predator–prey interactions because of potential negative effects on detection of sounds produced by predators or prey.

Organisation(en)
Department für Verhaltens- und Kognitionsbiologie
Journal
Fish and Fisheries
Band
23
Seiten
227-238
Anzahl der Seiten
12
ISSN
1467-2960
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1111/faf.12612
Publikationsdatum
09-2021
Peer-reviewed
Ja
ÖFOS 2012
106051 Verhaltensbiologie
Schlagwörter
ASJC Scopus Sachgebiete
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, Aquatic Science, Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, Oceanography
Link zum Portal
https://ucris.univie.ac.at/portal/de/publications/shut-up-or-shout-loudly-predation-threat-and-sound-production-in-fishes(ae14deb4-2fca-4896-baca-8b92d7f9c835).html